Ebook [Planet of the Bugs family law] ↠ Scott Richard Shaw

Free download Planet of the Bugs

Free download Ù Planet of the Bugs Ì PDF, DOC, TXT, eBook or Kindle ePUB free Dinosaurs however toothy did not rule the earth and neither do humans But what were and are the true potentates of our planet Insects says Scott Richard Shaw millions and millions of insect species Starting in the shallow oceans of ancient Earth and ending in the far reaches of outer space where Shaw proposes insect like aliens may have achieved similar preeminence Planet of the Bugs spins a sweeping account of insects’ evolution from humble arthropod ancestors into the bugs we know and love or fear and hate today Leaving no stone unturned Shaw explores how evolutionary innovatio. This is a well written work popular science work on the fossil history of insects throughout the world from their origins up until today in terms of their evolution interaction with environments of the past and in some cases extinction With some nice black and white and color photos not too technical text deft touches of humor short and well paced but not too brief chapters Shaw really made a great case for why through much of the history of life on Earth this really was the Planet of the Bugs The opening chapter The Buggy Planet was a good introduction making notes of the tremendous numbers of insects in the world almost one million living species and their tremendous importance noting that insects are essential as scavengers nutrient recyclers and soil producers feeding on and utilizing virtually every kind of organic material and as pollinators and seed dispersers for most of the flowering plants They are also vital because they put stress on plants acting as driving forces for plant evolution by preventing particular plant species from becoming superabundant and weedy allowing species to coexist in much smaller spaces Also many species of insects are themselves a vital food source to animals be they other insects mammals birds reptiles amphibians fish even humans Shaw also noted why there is such stunning insect diversity in short their small size allows them to exploit some highly specific environments the fact many can fly allows them to exploit new niches and to colonize new areas and the fact that many species have complex metamorphosis with young developmental forms larvae that are stunningly different from adults allow insects to not compete with their own offspring for food further allowing species to exist in a given area or niche The remaining chapters except for the very end detail the story of insect evolution through the time also noting aspects of evolution in plants and in other animals particularly in how they interacted with and were affected by insects and with geological and climatological changes of the Earth and how they impacted insect life The author in these chapters both introduced the reader to some strange forms of insect many of which are now extinct or at least don t exist in anything uite like past species and introduced new orders and families of insects as they arose and used that as a springboard to talk about say dragonflies or mayflies or termites in terms of their structure behavior and ecological niches Chapter two covered two periods the Cambrian Period and the Ordovician Period and was mainly about the rise of arthropods of which insects are a member In this chapter Shaw talked about the advantages of external skeletons protection and support the disadvantages some limits on growth and sensory systems and solutions to these disadvantages sensory spines and molting He also discussed the defining characteristics of arthropods external skeletons that they are segmented animals noting the name insect which means in sections and their multijointed legs Although not insects I enjoyed a section on trilobites detailed in a section titled The Rise and Fall of the House of the Trilobites I did not know that trilobites had a huge design flaw bug sorry in that they had a very irregular and inefficient method of molting their skeletons lacking what modern insects have the ecdysal suture a line of weakness along the upper side that allows them to unzip the old skeleton with trilobites often dying during molting and in addition apparently also lacked the insect innovation of recycling materials for their old skeleton while building a new skeleton beneath the old skeleton enabling insects to resume normal life in a few hours Chapter three was on the Silurian Period in which we learn about the arrival of the ancestor of insects on land in a section titled One Small Step for Arthropods some of the other goings on in the Silurian the Silurian was the age of the first coral reefs as well as boasting the first jawed fishes and first freshwater fishes we learn about sea scorpions brachiopods and fascinatingly for me how insects were able to thrive for millions of years before plants arrived and developed the capacity to survive on land and how for a long time insects and plants coexisted peacefully as all arthropods were scavengers and predators not herbivores Chapter four was on the Devonian Period again writing how others in discussing the period might focus instead on the importance of say Devonian coral reef ecosystems or how this is the age of amphibians Some really good discussion on the advantages of insect form in a delightfully titled subsection called Two Legs Bad Six Legs Good Shaw writing that the six legged form is sublime and fifty million insect species can t possibly have it wrong Also a nice discussion of two of the very first arthropod groups to colonize dry land the springtails they get their common name from the fact that they possess an unusual forked taillike structure on their abdomen that allows them to pole vault up to twenty times their body length and spring themselves to safety when disturbed the diplurans of Order Diplura scarce today their name literally means two tails and refers to the two prominent taillike cerci that extend from the end of their abdomens and the jumping bristletails or bristletails they have long bristly tails and they can jump by arching their body Chapter five was probably my favorite focusing on the Carboniferous and it covers a lot of territory The reader learns about the advent and biology of mayflies the lack of consumers of dead wood in Carboniferous coal swamps wood roaches did appear in the Late Carboniferous the first important insect wood consumers the evolution of insect wings a fascinating section how there are fossils of insect wings that preserve pigmentation patterns and why such pattern exist in a world where the only things flying are insects whether or not insects got so large because of increased oxygen in the atmosphere possibly a factor but not the only one at work about griffenflies the so called giant dragonflies which include the largest insects that ever lived notably Meganeuropsis permiana which had a wingspan of 71 centimeters or almost 3 feet in width why the Carboniferous should perhaps be called the age of roaches highly successful with their neopteran wings which unlike older forms could be folded back over their body and put away not held out constantly outstretched kitelike by the end of Carboniferous there were over 800 species of roaches and they made up about 60% of known Carboniferous insects Chapter six Paleozoic Holocaust discussed the evolution of insects in the Permian Period and how at the end this was the one time in Earth s history there were substantial insect extinctions along with so much of life on Earth especially on the sea which is also discussed After some discussion of Permian protomammals the author noted that the Permian saw an enormous explosion in insect types unlike anything before or since with at least 21 insect orders than now the peak diversity of old winged insects of which the griffenflies and dragonflies were an example and the first orthopteroid insects the ur crickets and ur katydids the first hemipteroid insects the true bugs with sophisticated siphoning mouthparts and the first insects with complete metamorphosis the beetles lacewings scorpionflies and caddisflies all of which are discussed in the chapter There was an interesting discussion that of the four orders of insects that went extinct all paleopterans the old style wings that did not fold in like dragonflies all had a sucking beak and all had immature nymphs that were terrestrial while those old wing or paleopterans that did survive mayflies dragonflies damselflies all had nymphs that lived in ponds lakes streams and marshes not on land One other old winged group order Protodonata the giant air dragons did survive the Permian mass extinction but went extinct well into the Mesozoic Chapter seven Triassic Spring discussed insect life in the first period of the Mesozoic Era the time in which the first dinosaurs appeared By this time insects were very much a major part of life on land though overshadowed by the dinosaurs and other vertebrates with Shaw speculating on interactions with dinosaurs and insects namely dinosaurs feeding on insects The Triassic also saw the advent of stick insects Phasmatodea webspinners Embiodea earwigs Dermaptera dobsonflies Megaloptera snakeflies Raphidioptera and wasps Hymenoptera as well as the first true Hemiptera true bugs all of which are discussed at length Though I would have liked information and some illustrations Shaw also discussed one only found in the Triassic period the giant titan insects of the order Titanoptera which were predatory insects that looked like oversized katydids Also discussed are the xyelid sawflies which became tremendously successful in the Triassic and Jurassic Periods Chapter eight Picnicking in Jurassic Park was also a fascinating chapter with in addition to yes some dinosaur discussion unavoidable really the history of Jurassic wood wasps the advent of parasitic wasp species descended from a band of rebellious young wood wasps that had rejected the vegetarian diets of their ancestors and decided to eat beetle larvae Shaw spends a lot of time discussing the origins of the sting on wasps how they function what they are derived from and on the different types of parasitoids a parasite that causes its host to die ectoparasistism feeding on the host from the outside and endoparasitism first appearing in the Jurassic in which a parasitic predator feeds on its prey from the inside Here we see that the author is a renown expert on parasitic wasps and one learns a great deal about the ins and outs of endoparatism uite a lot actually Further there are two other ways to categorize parasitism when it involves venom idiobiosis the host is permanently paralyzed wasps that do this are idiobionts and koinobiosis the host is either not paralyzed or only temporarily paralyzed wasps that do this are koinobionts The chapter closed out the with the advent of the first truly social insects the termites and some discussion of feathered flying dinosaurs and their interactions with insects including a very brief discussion of lice Chapter nine Cretaceous Bloom and Doom as one might guessed looked at two of the biggest events of the period the explosion of flowering plants onto the scene and whatever caused the mass extinction event at the end which was discussed some Though already in existence when the Cretaceous began it was the Cretaceous that saw the beginning of the vast evolutionary successes of butterflies and moths with Shaw discussing what propelled then to evolutionary greatnessthe feeding habits of their immature larval stages the caterpillars He also looked at the ways plants responded to insect feeding the various defensive compounds such as tannins alkaloids cyanogenic glycosides coumarins flavonoids steroids and terpenoids examples of which include caffeine nicotine morphine atropine cocaine strychnine uinine and curare all present because of millions of year of plant and insect coevolution The Cretaceous also saw the massive success of one wasp group the nest provisioning wasps and the origin of social wasps bees and ants all of three of which first appeared in the Cretaceous all of which are discussed Chapter 10 Cenozoic Reflections was a bit rambling and yes reflective than previous chapters Various topics visited included the possible role of insect gathering hunting eating on the rise of mammalian intelligence but the chapter mostly was a good summary of insect evolution over time and had author thoughts on parasitic wasps definitely his specialty The final section was a postscript The Buggy Universe Hypothesis in which the author postulates how something insect like might be one of the most common forms of macroscopic life in existence and why it was something already verifiable and has already passed one test this planet is observed to be astronomically full of bugs The book closed with some very readable notes suggested reading organized by chapter and a thorough index Very few complaints I would have liked discussion of some of the extinct insect groups and perhaps some illustrations depicting them in life is my main one Other than that though a very well written and fast reading popular science book

Download ì PDF, DOC, TXT, eBook or Kindle ePUB free Ä Scott Richard ShawPlanet of the Bugs

Free download Ù Planet of the Bugs Ì PDF, DOC, TXT, eBook or Kindle ePUB free Nd fauna contributed to insects’ success but also how in return insects came to shape terrestrial ecosystems and amplify biodiversity Indeed in his visits to hyperdiverse rain forests to highlight the current insect extinction crisis Shaw reaffirms just how crucial these tiny beings are to planetary health and human survival In this age of honeybee die offs and bedbugs hitching rides in the spines of library books Planet of the Bugs charms with humor affection and insight into the world’s six legged creatures revealing an essential importance that resonates across time and space. The First StepsFrom the earliest invasion of land to today s uncounted millions the Arthropods have dominated our planet On land the jointed foot clan is mostly represented by the insects and this is their story In Planet of the Bugs biologist Scott Richard Shaw takes the reader on the ultimate field trip back to those first steps through the long eons of deep time and forward to our modern world for an in depth look on how the insects have come to rule the landscape For me this was a very satisfying read on paleontology and evolutionary biology with the focus on insects and related Arthropods If you are a dedicated science reader you may find yourself covering some familiar ground just told from a different viewpoint The author s writing is for the most part geared for the layman reader with less technical jargon but out of necessity you will find plenty of scientific names for the geologic ages and the insects discussed many of them have no common names Dr Shaw has spent his career studying insects both modern and fossil forms so any speculation he does is based on his extensive knowledge of this field In gathering material for Planet of the Bugs and his own personal research Dr Shaw was aided by several of his students and with the collaboration of various colleagues from around the world I especially liked his writeup on the Yanayacu Cloud Forrest of Ecuador and of the many specialists who work at the research station there This excellent book is not just about bugs it s also about geological time and how all life forms change to fit into a constantly changing environment Covered too is the human impact on our biosphere and what the future may hold for not only insects but for all life forms including Man Written in clear layman friendly proses with just a touch of humor Planet of the Bugs is well worth the time of anyone interested on how our world work and how small changes can lead to unforeseen results I highly recommend this book I had no technical or downloading problems with this Kindle editionLast Ranger

Scott Richard Shaw Ä 2 Read

Free download Ù Planet of the Bugs Ì PDF, DOC, TXT, eBook or Kindle ePUB free Ns such as small body size wings metamorphosis and parasitic behavior have enabled insects to disperse widely occupy increasingly narrow niches and survive global catastrophes in their rise to dominance Through buggy tales by turns bizarre and comical from caddisflies that construct portable houses or weave silken auatic nets to trap floating debris to parasitic wasp larvae that develop in the blood of host insects and by storing waste products in their rear ends are able to postpone defecation until after they emerge he not only unearths how changes in our planet’s geology flora a. The golden salad days of wasp parasitism Back in the very early days of internal parasitism one of the wasps managed to soil its own hypodermic ovipositor with some virus particles were injected along with a wasp egg into a hapless host insect The virus replicateddisabling the immune system Once immune systems were disabled eggs and larvae could wallow in insect bloodParasitic wasps particularly the wicked tiny ones are Shaw s particular thing in Entomolgy so it s no surprise that their evolution is the most developed topic in the book No complaints here it s probably my favorite topic in bugdom too Definitely a good read for those of us with an inner or outer Science Nerd I took away all sorts of new neat stuff from Planet of the Bugs I m going to hold a bar crowd s attention with rhapsodies on the Grylloblattidae ice bugs which live atop freezing mountains and feed on the carcasses of flying insects which became windswept to a frozen end It s easy to catch the sultry appeal of Aleiodes shakirae the little parasitic wasp named for Shakira but I know there s got to be a way to make the Mantophasmatodae sound sexy They are gladiator bugs after allAs for sociopolitical economic chatter Shaw left me with this juicy idea It s not the world s current insatiable need for electric lights and big ass SUV s which threaten the supply of fossil fuels Rather blame it all on those goddamned insects and their lousy fucking ecosystem building ways which ended the Carboniferous Period No coal swamp production truly screwed us out of unlimited sources of hydrocarbons to help burn away our global health Up yours arthropods Aleiodes shakirae injection of an egg into a caterpillar causes it to undulate as if belly dancing For additional demented trips through the Magic Realm of Arthropods check into Jackass on a Camel Fossils Freaks Mayhem in the Cradle of Mankind 1038 am Maralal Central Time I was face up on my sleeping bag staring at the ugliest animal I ve ever seen A god awful huge and mutated wasp It was as grotesuely deformed as I felt grotesuely poisoned Two thirds of it was waspish enough head thorax and wings were the stuff of God s most badass bug But its abdomen was something entirely different extending like a tumorous knockwurst or parasitic maggot the color of a spoiled yam Maybe it was a ueen hornet looking to discharge a glob of eggs into my chest That nasty gut recalled the egg sac of the mother bug in Aliens Aw fuck it was going to pump eggs in my thorax so I d burst into a swarm of gruesome little girls at the supper table Dammit That just wasn t the way I wanted to go out

  • Hardcover
  • 256
  • Planet of the Bugs
  • Scott Richard Shaw
  • en
  • 25 January 2018
  • 9780226163611